During the last decade, the LiB market was driven by the information technologies development. It is anticipated that the market expansion for LiBs in the next decade will be driven by electrical vehicles. Batteries will be coupled with super-capacitors in this application domain to fit with the demand in high power storage in transportation. If we focus on the more mature market of electrical vehicles (including buses, trucks and passengers cars), Europe appears as one of the biggest LiB market size (Figure 1) compared with China and North America, while US and Asian companies dominate with a combined market share of ≈ 70%.
Though battery energy storage devices have been available for many decades, there are many fundamental gaps in understanding the atomic and molecular scale processes that govern their operation, performance limitations, and failure safety. Fundamental research is critically needed to uncover the underlying principles that govern these complex and interrelated processes. Interfaces play important roles in chemical energy storage cells. A molecular-level understanding of the full range of interfaces in ESS is needed. This knowledge would enable a system approach for designing tailored interfaces/interphases for future high-energy chemical energy storage systems with longer lifetimes and safer performance.
Technological issues addressed by the BACCARA project
Interfaces understanding and control for designing high quality interfaces for batteries and supercapacitors with enhanced performance
Interfaces analysis : a key issue to reach technological improvement
Development of Nanocharacterisation network of multiprobe in situ cluster tools and in operando experiments coupled with numerical simulations
The present project aims at improving the performance of LiB and supercapacitors. This step requires a deep understanding of interfaces and interphases evolution within the electrode in cycling in order to control and improve their properties.
We propose to create a network of multiprobe characterization techniques to investigate these interfaces and their behavior through in situ/in operando methods. The goal is to control and then optimize the negative electrode/electrolyte interface (active material morphology and functionalization, electrode formulation, electrolyte formulation) by investigating structural,chemical and morphological changes during electrochemical cyclability.
As stated in the call’s title “Understanding interfaces in secondary batteries and super-capacitors through in situ methods”, a deep insight in the process will be gained through a network of classical and advanced techniques of characterization coupled with numerical simulations to investigate the electrodes at molecular and atomic scale, crossed with a series of in operando studies on model systems including large scale instruments (synchrotron beam). The new data collected therein will lead us to propose enhancement strategies, which will be tested for performance and security, searching for “the fundamental basis for the next innovative generation of large electrical energy storage devices” (grid-scale).